The End of the Knowledge Monopolies

1. The indicators of Knowledge diffusion

1) Patent(USPTO)

huge companies↓ small firms, individuals↑ US companies → other countries

2) Change of Industrial R&D by size of Enterprise

25,000+: 70.7%(1981) → 25,000-:58.7%(1999)

3) increasing of college and post-college graduates.

these movement make finding a value on the outside easily

2. Characteristics of abundance knowledge age

(1) labor mobility ↑ (lifetime employment↓)
(2) Pension with the worker (not with the job)
(3) Venture Capital
(4) abundant external Knowledge
you can choose new idea on diverse menu(university,…)
  • The change of meaning of NIH(not invented here) NIH: exclusion of outside technology → relying on external sources

##3. how to access external knowledges##

(1) employing professor or graduate students of a professor
(2) funding external research at nearby university
Scanning of new ideas( by proposals from researchers) before spending money

(3) scouting the activities of young start-up companies – business development discussion – strategic alliances– giving money to interested venture capitalists – investing directly in promising start-up companies


1) Intel (1) the relyied almost entirely on external research (2) assessing what is available form the outside → charting its own course inside (3) very well thought-out program of funding university research projects ( $100M/year) 2) IBM, Merck ( successful firms in former paradigm) → into the wealth of external knowledge